Assignment on Adolescent Peer Cultures

Adolescence represents a transitional period between statuses and affiliations. Most often the term’s use is restricted to the transition from the world of the child to adult.

Certain historical antecedents have heightened the importance of adolescence and an understanding of it. Major factors include, “the separation of the location of work from the domicile, the highly specialized division of labor, the necessity of a long period of education and training in preparation for a position within the complex urban-industrial structure, the availability to the young of a considerable share of the economic affluence, and the relatively high social and geographic mobility so characteristic of urban-industrial life”.

Adolescence may be characterized by a separation from the adult world and the increasing salience of the peer group. The peer group serves as a focus for the development of a distinct culture including activities, routines, norms, and values.

The vast majority of the research done which respects the autonomy of children’s cultures has been done either with young children or with high school-age adolescents. This is unfortunate because of the importance of this stage as serving as a transition from childhood to adolescence. This is the time in which peer influences are thought to be at their most advanced state.

Early adolescents have a greater level of independence than younger children and are given more opportunities to interact outside of the constraints of adults. Studies of student life in educational environments have consistently found that being with friends is the most salient aspect of school life for most students. However, not all friendship groups are considered equal among middle school and high school students.

A major development during pre and early adolescence is an increasing concern with social status and social differentiation. Numerous studies have also found that for males, athletic participation is a key to the acquisition of social status. The link between social status and athletic participation is understood by recognizing the importance of athletics in overall gender development.

The characteristics and traits expected of adult males are (theoretically) transmitted in the sports setting. Not only are cultural expectations for individual males supported in athletics, but also the school as an institution legitimates the importance of participation through the tremendous financial and organizational support given these programs.

Essay on History of Coaching

Turbulent economic environments generate changes in the way business is performed. Such turbulence was experienced at the dawning of the 20th century. That turbulence brought demand for expansion in both production and productivity in the United States. At that time, Frederick Taylor had been, since 1875, working on scientific management techniques. These were the techniques that would be used to fulfill that demand for production and productivity.

By 1900, Taylor had commenced work on his book, The Principles of Scientific Management, which was published in 1915. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, the world was going through a devastating depression. One company, in particular, was searching for assistance to survive the depression. Studebaker had a monumental problem: insufficient car sales. Studebaker’s management decided the sales group with the assistance of a coach could expand car sales, thus strengthening chances for surviving the devastating depression. Studebaker Corporation was located in South Bend, Indiana, and so was Notre Dame University with a winning football coach.

Studebaker turned to Notre Dame for assistance, and that assistance was found in Knut Rockne. Studebaker negotiated a contract with Rockne on May 1, 1928, to expedite the transformation of car sales. Rockne had been building successful football squads for years; he apparently understood methods and psychology needed to make an organization function. Rockne characterized the manager’s job as that of designating, preparing, guiding, encouraging, and compensating employees. Similarly, he characterized the coach’s job as designating, preparing, guiding, and encouraging football players during the final year, 1932, of Rockne’s life, Studebaker made him head coach of a sales management team.

One manifestation of his coaching strategy was illustrated by the directive that all sales managers of agencies were expected to be competitors for the main string position. In the 1950s, again, a sluggish economy brought demand for assistance to the industrial arena. Successively, articles began appearing in periodicals about the coaching process. One attempt to investigate coaching as a management process was illustrated in the 1958 work of Mace and Mahler.

They envisioned coaching as a deserving and obtainable management skill. In the late 1970s, American corporations began to realize that their market share was being lost, a substantial amount to Japan and assistance was necessary if the market position was to be maintained or regained. Once again, attention shifted to the human resource elements within organizations.

Thesis on Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory

Experiential learning theory integrates the research on cognitive development and cognitive style. Kolb credits the work of Lewin in the I940’s and the sensitivity training of the 1950s and 1960s with his understanding of the importance of experience in the learning process. He conceives of learning as a four-stage cycle.

It is essentially an open system capable of using the information generated by each stage to self-correct when the cycle repeats. Reflective strategies leading to action are based on avoidance of error and on the reward for active accomplishment. Kolb states, “Thus, in the process of learning, one moves in varying degrees from actor to observer, from specific involvement to general detachment” in a continuous cycle.

This is a teleological approach using cost/benefit analysis to determine needed accommodations. Positive findings were reported for this model of instruction in the literature, but studies were primarily descriptive, not specifically tied to Kolb’s theory, and focused on the assumption of skills used in a professional role. Isolated data, from my perspective, has little meaning unless tied to theory.

This model was not designed specifically for moral development as were the Perry and Kohlberg models, and the validation and/or use of Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory is the focus of the experiential learning theory literature. An advantage of this model is that it allows for self-correcting behavior as one learns skills. It does not, however, offer a structure that balances the needs of the individual, the profession, the environment, and the patient concurrently.

The lack of inclusion of non-justice perspectives limits the appropriateness of Kohlberg’s theory as a model for ethics instruction among the health care professions. Without the ability to include alternative philosophical perspectives, Kohlberg’s work does focus on ”indoctrination.”

This could probably nicely accommodate professional interests but it lacks appropriateness to meet the pluralistic demands of clinical practice that must also be grounded in a recognition of environment-centered and patient-centered concerns.

Thesis on Character Education in Mississippi

The techniques now practiced in teaching character education offer a temporary solution by Today’s society expects public schools to correct social problems with educators being directed to address the needs of their students.

In an effort to help prepare Mississippi’s children for the task of thinking critically to solve problems in conflict resolution, parenting, and the challenges of living in today’s complex society, the Mississippi legislators created House Bill 1467.

House Bill 1467 passed into law in 1994 requires that high schools in the state of Mississippi offer Family Dynamics classes to their students. During their regular legislative session, representatives and senators deemed it worthy to enact legislation that provided grades 10 through 12 in all school districts in Mississippi with Family and Consumer Science programs.

Their legislation also provided state funding for such programs and authorized school districts and community/junior college districts to apply for funding for Family and Consumer Sciences training programs. Section 1 of House Bill 1467, cited in the Mississippi Department of Education Resource Manual for Family Dynamics, also mandated that prior to July 1, 1997, all local school districts would provide programs of education in Family and Consumer Sciences for grades 10, 11, and 12 that would include course work in responsible parenting and family living skills.

According to the bill, programs are to include instruction that prepares students to assume responsibility for meeting the challenges of living in today’s complex society. Curriculum emphasis is placed on nutrition, emotional health, and physical health. An outgrowth of House Bill 1467 has been a Family and Consumer Sciences course entitled Family Dynamics.

The Family Dynamics curriculum focuses on teaching students to utilize skills in critical thinking, decision making, conflict management, communication, and resource management as they relate to personal development, understanding the family in today’s society, and parenting decisions and responsibilities.

The one-semester Family Dynamics course cannot solve the complex problems of society alone but can be a part of the solution by assisting students to understand the need for strong family units where individuals can develop in a healthy environment.