Assignment on Adolescent Peer Cultures

Adolescence represents a transitional period between statuses and affiliations. Most often the term’s use is restricted to the transition from the world of the child to adult.

Certain historical antecedents have heightened the importance of adolescence and an understanding of it. Major factors include, “the separation of the location of work from the domicile, the highly specialized division of labor, the necessity of a long period of education and training in preparation for a position within the complex urban-industrial structure, the availability to the young of a considerable share of the economic affluence, and the relatively high social and geographic mobility so characteristic of urban-industrial life”.

Adolescence may be characterized by a separation from the adult world and the increasing salience of the peer group. The peer group serves as a focus for the development of a distinct culture including activities, routines, norms, and values.

The vast majority of the research done which respects the autonomy of children’s cultures has been done either with young children or with high school-age adolescents. This is unfortunate because of the importance of this stage as serving as a transition from childhood to adolescence. This is the time in which peer influences are thought to be at their most advanced state.

Early adolescents have a greater level of independence than younger children and are given more opportunities to interact outside of the constraints of adults. Studies of student life in educational environments have consistently found that being with friends is the most salient aspect of school life for most students. However, not all friendship groups are considered equal among middle school and high school students.

A major development during pre and early adolescence is an increasing concern with social status and social differentiation. Numerous studies have also found that for males, athletic participation is a key to the acquisition of social status. The link between social status and athletic participation is understood by recognizing the importance of athletics in overall gender development.

The characteristics and traits expected of adult males are (theoretically) transmitted in the sports setting. Not only are cultural expectations for individual males supported in athletics, but also the school as an institution legitimates the importance of participation through the tremendous financial and organizational support given these programs.

Assignment on Seven Elements of Counseling

There are seven elements that are required for counseling. These elements describe the conditions required for effective counseling. They are:-

1. a trained professional counselor who is competent in understanding an extensive range of problems is required. The counselor does not need to be a practicing professional counselor but does need academic training and practical experience.

2. A relationship including mutual understanding must exist between the counselor and the client.

3. Counseling requires both counseling expertise and supportive personality. These qualities must mutually exist to develop a growth-producing atmosphere. A supportive environment and competencies are required for an individual to receive maximum assistance.

4. Counseling is a process through which an individual unlearns maladaptive behavior and learns adaptive behavior. Maladaptive behavior, abnormal or normal, interferes with desired accomplishments.

5. The counseling process should help an individual to relate with self and others, develop a more integrated nature, and develop a less fragmented personality. Thus, the individual should become less confrontational and exhibit less aggressive behavior. Relating is a fundamental psychological requirement which can only continue through interpersonal relationships.

6. The individuals must be prepared to psychologically relate to themselves and others, thus producing growth in both intrapersonal and interpersonal competencies.

7. Counseling must exhibit a relationship existing between a counselor and individual seeking help. The individual who solicits counseling must indeed be pursuing assistance.

The personal growth or advising functions are relative to both work and non-work situations. The advising function encourages and contributes to morale and motivation. The advisor serves as a role model within the organization. Further, personal advising consists of praising and functioning as a confidante, fostering friendship, and creating a trusting relationship.

The teaching classification contained seven functions performed by mentors. The seven functions include: providing instructions for technical skills, providing opportunities to acquire technical knowledge, providing personal instructions, providing information about the current job, providing information about organizational culture, advising about organizational politics, and providing them opportunities to acquire skills necessary for the future jobs. The mentor provides these either by personal instructions or by referral to other sources providing the appropriate information.

Assignment on Role of Family and Teachers

Family and Consumer Sciences teachers have long been viewed as a diverse group of educators qualified to implement education for character. As instructors who are role models of many expectations that parents and community members see for their children, family and Consumer Sciences educators are expected to teach and reinforce the concepts of self-esteem, responsibility, conflict resolution, respect, honesty, reliability, commitment, responsible decision-making, cooperation, and perseverance.

Family and Consumer Sciences teachers in Mississippi have accepted the challenge by providing a course that enables students to investigate the consequences of their actions and decisions so that they can choose wisely and maximize their potentials. The major content areas of the course are Dimensions of Personal Development, Family Systems in Today’s Society, and Parenting Decisions and Responsibilities. Process strands that permeate the course content areas are Critical Thinking, Decision Making, Communication, Conflict Management, and Resource Management.

“Character is the foundation stone upon which one must build to win respect. Just as no worthy building can be erected on a weak foundation, so no lasting reputation worthy of respect can be built on a weak character. “Character progresses as values become virtues. Virtues enable people to “respond to situations in a morally good way “. A character so conceived includes moral knowing, moral feeling, and moral behavior. Good character includes knowing what is good, desiring what is good, and doing what is good.

All three habits make up moral maturity and are pertinent to a moral life that is capable of functioning in a social environment. The role of education in the training of youth in the area of values dates back to ancient Greece where Plato considered the moral problems of individual behavior in relation to the social good and decided that very early in a child’s life “a beginning should be made to train his mind to discriminate between good and harmful pleasures”. Aristotle stated that the “end of education should be above all else the development of an actively good man”.

History of Women and Mentoring

Before the 1800s, the large majority of men and women in the United States worked in the same environment on the farm or in the family business. Although distinct, the roles of men and women in the family economy of this period were not vastly different.

In response to the American Industrial Revolution, men migrated from working at home to factories and offices, while women became full-time homemakers. Therefore, the woman’s role of homemaker and the man’s role of economic provider were separately defined and different values were attached to men’s work and women’s work.

Over time, the perception of the ownership of these respective roles became more rigidly entrenched in the national value system due to the relentless socialization of both men and women in their respective roles. If women ventured into factories or offices, their roles were perceived as support functions only, and thus they were placed in menial jobs with low pay, status, and power.

Quite the contrary, however, their male counterparts were considered and socialized as the decision-makers in the workplace. 2Although some women entered the labor force under these conditions during the 1800s and early 1900s, it was the onset of World War II that actively pressed massive numbers of women into the workforce. Both married and single women were urged to fill jobs vacated by men who were drafted or volunteered for the armed forces.

Not only did women prove to be highly capable of performing these jobs, but they also enjoyed doing and being paid for valued work. After World War II, women did not return to their previous primary roles as homemakers but rather remained in the workforce low paid low status, and powerless employees. As employees, they experienced both access and valuation discrimination.

In the 1960s, women from all walks of life helped establish the National Organization for Women. Their vision included equal employment opportunities and an end to inequities in the workplace. Also during the 1960s, the Civil Rights Act, the Equal Pay Act, and the doctrine of Comparable Worth were implemented to address both access and valuation discrimination. As a result of legal intervention to ensure equal rights of women in the workforce, women not only entered into the workplace in unprecedentedly large numbers but also had access (though limited) to all types of professions.