History of Women and Mentoring

Before the 1800s, the large majority of men and women in the United States worked in the same environment on the farm or in the family business. Although distinct, the roles of men and women in the family economy of this period were not vastly different.

In response to the American Industrial Revolution, men migrated from working at home to factories and offices, while women became full-time homemakers. Therefore, the woman’s role of homemaker and the man’s role of economic provider were separately defined and different values were attached to men’s work and women’s work.

Over time, the perception of the ownership of these respective roles became more rigidly entrenched in the national value system due to the relentless socialization of both men and women in their respective roles. If women ventured into factories or offices, their roles were perceived as support functions only, and thus they were placed in menial jobs with low pay, status, and power.

Quite the contrary, however, their male counterparts were considered and socialized as the decision-makers in the workplace. 2Although some women entered the labor force under these conditions during the 1800s and early 1900s, it was the onset of World War II that actively pressed massive numbers of women into the workforce. Both married and single women were urged to fill jobs vacated by men who were drafted or volunteered for the armed forces.

Not only did women prove to be highly capable of performing these jobs, but they also enjoyed doing and being paid for valued work. After World War II, women did not return to their previous primary roles as homemakers but rather remained in the workforce low paid low status, and powerless employees. As employees, they experienced both access and valuation discrimination.

In the 1960s, women from all walks of life helped establish the National Organization for Women. Their vision included equal employment opportunities and an end to inequities in the workplace. Also during the 1960s, the Civil Rights Act, the Equal Pay Act, and the doctrine of Comparable Worth were implemented to address both access and valuation discrimination. As a result of legal intervention to ensure equal rights of women in the workforce, women not only entered into the workplace in unprecedentedly large numbers but also had access (though limited) to all types of professions.

Thesis on the Importance of Feedback in Coaching

Listening skills have been recognized as a fragile connection in the flow of interactive communication. Demonstration of successful coaching strategies requires the coach to develop and utilize listening skills. The most effective coaches utilize listening to strengthen understanding of the environment.

Great coaches communicate in a way that allows a player to see the game differently than from the perspective of the action. Communication provides possibilities for action not available in the absence of coaching Feedback is accomplished by either written or oral information used in evaluating work activities. Functioning through difficulties requires the coach to be competent, to provide and accept constructive feedback. Whereas, constructive feedback contains both positive and negative information.

The recommendations of feedback should encourage personal development for the accepting subordinate. Feedback should, also, encourage changes in performance with minimum pressure or confusion when the subordinate decides to change the constructive feedback tool is used to improve performance and enhance the development of subordinates. Learning the techniques of dispensing and receiving feedback is demanding, time-consuming, and a continuing process. The obvious results, productivity improvement, performance improvement, and others, greatly exceed the time consumed in learning feedback techniques.

Coaches should utilize constructive feedback when providing subordinates with information about performance changes in relation to developed goals and strategies. An essential function within the coaching process requires managers to provide constructive feedback. When subordinates are provided with feedback on task-related performances, the acknowledgment can reinforce the results of goal setting. Performances appraised through feedback keeps goal-directed behavior focused toward accomplishing the task. Also, the feedback information keeps employees involved and should encourage them to strive harder to accomplish their goals.

The feedback should concentrate on observations, not assumptions. Correctly, managers should provide subordinates with specific examples gathered from the Dissemination of suggestions and/or other information is the nucleus for constructive feedback rather than dispensing advice. Consequently, investigating alternate methods promotes the expansion of subordinates’ horizons in which the appropriate conclusions to problems may be acquired. The coach or manager should emphasize the subordinate valid accomplishments, which were attained from the feedback provided.

The length of feedback information should be restricted to subordinates’ tolerance level. Employees may respond with an emotional reaction if the information is repeatedly dispensed at inappropriate times or places. Therefore, further dissemination of information should be terminated when emotional responses develop.

Structure of the labour market in Saudi Arabia

Before the discovery of oil, the country was dominated by a nomadic and semi-nomadic way of life, known as the Bedouin lifestyle. The wandering and semi-nomadic population was estimated at 50% of the total population. This population began to decline, reaching about 46.2% in 1966 and gradually reaching 7% in 1992.

Considerable efforts were made, from 1910 to 1968, to establish nomads and transform them into agricultural societies. Some public departments were also created in 1915. The manufacturers did not exist until 1927. The craft industry, craft companies, fishing, and scuba diving were sources of employment in the most significant cities from the country. The workers involved in these types of work were few due to the country’s low income and the limited resources of the time.

In recent times, Saudi Arabia is undergoing a significant economic transformation, generating prosperity, and the resulting increased demand for labor. The country has met this demand by welcoming an influx of expatriate workers, whose labor force participation increased from 6.1 million a year earlier to 6.3 million in 2015, exceeding the number of Saudis. In the labor force, the overall participation rate of the country is 53.6%, compared with an average of 53.8% in the G20 countries.  But it is interesting to note that there is no correlation between production and rate of participation.

Saudi GDP increased to a 5.3% average between 2010 and 2015. This means that employers are continually adding jobs and looking for candidates for filling them, both among Saudis and expatriates. However, new opportunities on a qualified Saudian’s on the other side are not enough to ensure all skilled workers find jobs. The mismatch between supply and demand – connecting the Saudis opportunities that most effectively match their skills – is another barrier to sustainable economic growth.

Thesis on Developments in Saudi Arabia

The improvement of oil fields preceded in Saudi Arabia, for the most part by Aramco, a Texaco-Chevron association. In 1951, Aramco found the main seaward store in the Middle East in the Ra’s Al-Saffāniyyah area. Around the same time, Saudi oil generation expanded quickly by diverting oil from eastern Saudi Arabia into the Mediterranean Sea.

In the year 1981, activities were halted, and another task was made, which significantly abbreviated the destiny of oil handling. OPEC was made with Saudi Arabia during the 1973 oil emergency, the cost of oil expanded from single figure dollars per barrel to about twofold figure dollars, and the Saudi economy started to develop quickly.

After steadily purchasing Aramco’s advantages, the Saudi government nationalized the organization in 1980. The cost of oil topped and request began to diminish because of retreats in industrialized nations and the more proficient utilization of oil excess. This made an abundance of oil around the world, with the cost of oil tumbling from roughly $35 for every barrel into approximately $15.

Oil creation in Saudi Arabia, which had expanded fell marked some spending deficiencies that have been created. The legislature has diminished its outside resources of the oil surplus and the pressure of declining generation, Saudi Arabia has started to change creation amounts all the more intimately with OPEC individuals.

In June 1993, Saudi Aramco consumed the state advertising and refining organization (SAMAREC), turning into the biggest completely incorporated oil organization on the planet. Most of the Saudi oil fares originate from oil tankers at the oil terminals in the Persian Gulf.

The remainder of the oil fares is directed through the east-west pipeline through a port in the Red Sea. A significant new gas activity guarantees to produce noteworthy venture from US and European oil organizations to create non-related gas fields in three separate districts of Saudi Arabia. Be that as it may, since late 1997, Saudi Arabia again confronted the issue of low oil costs. Because of a blend of variables like:

  • economic emergencies in East Asia,
  • severe winter in the west brought about by El Niño
  • expanded creation of non-OPEC oil,
  • the interest for investment in oil refining has eased back
  • A decrease in consumer spending on the cost of fuel.