Sample Thesis Paper
In many areas of Southeast Asia, customary land tenure and use, as distinct from modern practices, still persist and play important roles in maintaining community stability. Land within communities does not necessarily belong to any one owner, but that the community itself is significantly concerned with ‘land ownership’. Researchers referred to such community based private ownership as a dualism of ownership.
The private property with the collective management could also be discussed in the theory of the commons. The landholders are not tightly correspondent with the land users. It is not only the individual who owns a piece of land that has the right to use it: all members of the community can participate in land-use practices. Community members are allowed to use the land and its resources through a system of ‘latent customs and various social and cultural functions are embedded within the concept of ownership. In this arena, the moral norms implicit in human relationships which fundamentally exist within each community – the ‘structure of understanding’ shared between all members dwelling within the society concerned – still survive, apart from the principle of struggle based on individualism. That is, the commons as ‘the arena of communal ownership embedded in private ownership; deserves to be paid attention. Moreover, communal resources spread across privately owned land also play a significant role in contributing to people’s effective subsistence strategies, by distributing privately unoccupied resources and land to the people. Such communal lands provide space and opportunity for local people to utilize resources at will whenever they can not afford to secure enough food to meet their daily requirements. Therefore, communal lands of this sort should be considered as continuation of private property, rather than treated as a separate area.