Sample Thesis Paper
Daoud eliminated Afghanistan’s monarchy and established the country as a republic with himself as the President and Prime Minister. For the next five years he attempted to implement far-ranging economic and social reforms but these efforts failed. Over this same period, Daoud began to distance himself from the more vociferously communist elements within the PDPA.
Daoud was suspected of the Soviet Union of aligning his government more closely with the West and, particularly with the U.S. The reform efforts of Daoud came to an abrupt end when the decade-long split in the PDPA was resolved through the direct intervention of the Soviet Union. The party was reunified and undertook a successful coup of Daoud’s administration. Daoud and his family were murdered in the coup. This series of events set the stage for the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the start of the nation’s long and brutal civil war (CIA Factbook, 2009; Johnson & Leslie, 2002; Nyrop, 2001).
Civil War in Afghanistan
The assassination of Daoud came to be known as the Khalq (the “masses”) Revolution, after the faction of the PDPA whose leaders helmed the coup. While the Khalq had reunified with the Parcham faction, at the behest of the Soviet Union, the ethnic and class divisions that characterized the two groups continued to simmer even as the PDPAs power was solidified in 1978 under the party’s rule as the “Democratic Republic of Afghanistan” (DRA). The DRA moved quickly to initiate land reform and greater secularization of the nation by implementing policies that guaranteed the rights of women to participate in political life and to have access to education and career opportunities while securing additional freedom of religion rights (Nyrop, 2001).