History of Women and Mentoring

Before the 1800s, the large majority of men and women in the United States worked in the same environment on the farm or in the family business. Although distinct, the roles of men and women in the family economy of this period were not vastly different.

In response to the American Industrial Revolution, men migrated from working at home to factories and offices, while women became full-time homemakers. Therefore, the woman’s role of homemaker and the man’s role of economic provider were separately defined and different values were attached to men’s work and women’s work.

Over time, the perception of the ownership of these respective roles became more rigidly entrenched in the national value system due to the relentless socialization of both men and women in their respective roles. If women ventured into factories or offices, their roles were perceived as support functions only, and thus they were placed in menial jobs with low pay, status, and power.

Quite the contrary, however, their male counterparts were considered and socialized as the decision-makers in the workplace. 2Although some women entered the labor force under these conditions during the 1800s and early 1900s, it was the onset of World War II that actively pressed massive numbers of women into the workforce. Both married and single women were urged to fill jobs vacated by men who were drafted or volunteered for the armed forces.

Not only did women prove to be highly capable of performing these jobs, but they also enjoyed doing and being paid for valued work. After World War II, women did not return to their previous primary roles as homemakers but rather remained in the workforce low paid low status, and powerless employees. As employees, they experienced both access and valuation discrimination.

In the 1960s, women from all walks of life helped establish the National Organization for Women. Their vision included equal employment opportunities and an end to inequities in the workplace. Also during the 1960s, the Civil Rights Act, the Equal Pay Act, and the doctrine of Comparable Worth were implemented to address both access and valuation discrimination. As a result of legal intervention to ensure equal rights of women in the workforce, women not only entered into the workplace in unprecedentedly large numbers but also had access (though limited) to all types of professions.

Structure of the labour market in Saudi Arabia

Before the discovery of oil, the country was dominated by a nomadic and semi-nomadic way of life, known as the Bedouin lifestyle. The wandering and semi-nomadic population was estimated at 50% of the total population. This population began to decline, reaching about 46.2% in 1966 and gradually reaching 7% in 1992.

Considerable efforts were made, from 1910 to 1968, to establish nomads and transform them into agricultural societies. Some public departments were also created in 1915. The manufacturers did not exist until 1927. The craft industry, craft companies, fishing, and scuba diving were sources of employment in the most significant cities from the country. The workers involved in these types of work were few due to the country’s low income and the limited resources of the time.

In recent times, Saudi Arabia is undergoing a significant economic transformation, generating prosperity, and the resulting increased demand for labor. The country has met this demand by welcoming an influx of expatriate workers, whose labor force participation increased from 6.1 million a year earlier to 6.3 million in 2015, exceeding the number of Saudis. In the labor force, the overall participation rate of the country is 53.6%, compared with an average of 53.8% in the G20 countries.  But it is interesting to note that there is no correlation between production and rate of participation.

Saudi GDP increased to a 5.3% average between 2010 and 2015. This means that employers are continually adding jobs and looking for candidates for filling them, both among Saudis and expatriates. However, new opportunities on a qualified Saudian’s on the other side are not enough to ensure all skilled workers find jobs. The mismatch between supply and demand – connecting the Saudis opportunities that most effectively match their skills – is another barrier to sustainable economic growth.

Socio-economic development of Saudi Arabia

Oil reserves, which record for about a second of the world’s oil reserves. Oil reserves in Saudi Arabia account for about 268.5 billion barrels. This makes oil extraction in Saudi Arabia a lot less expensive and subsequently unquestionably more gainful than all other nations in the world.

The Petroleum sector represents around 88 percent of Saudi Arabia’s spending income, 95 percent of fare profit, and 45 percent of GDP. Saudi Arabian company called Arabia Aramco, to a great extent, deals with the reserves and oil generation of this country. Another 39% of GDP originates from the private sector.

The other sectors include construction and retail and others. It is assessed that 7.5 million outsiders work legitimately in Saudi Arabia and assume a pivotal job in the Saudi economy, during the time spent oil extraction and related administration sectors. In ongoing decades, the legislature has started to permit the cooperation of the private sector and outside financial specialists in industries, for example, vitality creation and media communications, and has joined the World Trade Organization.

For the greater part of the 2000s, high oil costs enabled the administration to run spending plan surpluses, increment preparing and aptitudes preparing, create the foundation, and compensate the state. Regarding GDP per capita salary, Saudi Arabia is right now in the lower strata of developing nations, with other nations, for example, Spain, Italy, and New Zealand.

In different regards, Saudi incomes depend intensely on oil and flammable gas trades. Various sectors of the economy, for example, industry or benefits, and even horticulture are immature. In individual districts, like different nations while in comparison to per capita salary, being a flat-out government with a feeble conventional society where a few gatherings have insufficient rights. This is, to a great extent, an outcome of the late advancement of Saudi Arabia as a state. During the 1950s, Saudi Arabia was generally an underpopulated and immature desert.

From that point forward, immense oil incomes have changed society to the end of being indistinguishable. The nation is as yet attempting to get up to speed with improvement past the oil and gas sector. In 1933, the Saudi government consented to an oil concession arrangement with the Standard Oil Company of California. 

Thesis: Importance of Customer Loyalty

Sample Thesis Paper

John Calkins and Catherine (2004) states that though brand loyalty originates from the development of customer satisfaction that a certain brand provides, this in turn leads to growth for the business. Customer loyalty is essential to a brand because in the modern day world of aggressive marketing and information technology driven corporate environment, consumers become more aware of their options than they previously were. The modern day consumer is one who is swift in his/her evaluation of alternatives and in certain cases, just as swift in switching from one brand to another.