Essay on Importance of Peer Relationship

While the cultures of children have long been of interest to social theorists until recently studies of these cultures have failed to conceptualize youth as complete and autonomous social actors. Through the mid-1960s research on child development and socialization was dominated by a behavioristic approach. This approach has been criticized on three major points.

First, children were viewed passively. The emphasis was on the internalization of adult roles by means of modeling and reinforcement. Adults controlled the socialization process. This approach may also be characterized as individualistic. Children learned the elements of adult culture separately and apart from peers. Lastly, the behavioristic perspective has largely neglected the cognitive processes and interpretive capacities of children (and indeed of all social actors). The world described by behaviorists is objective, obvious, and requires no interpretation.

This perspective has come under increasing attack for its simplistic notions with respect to the dynamics of interaction and social structure. The recognition of the importance of peer relations is a major step toward a better understanding of socialization and developmental processes. There are, however, flaws which remain in this approach.

The perspective is still largely individualistic in nature. While peers are seen as influencing the development of knowledge and skills, these competencies are still characteristic of individuals and not the peer group. There is an assumed model of the competent adult actor and children are evaluated against this ideal. A recognition of the autonomy of children’s cultures is still lacking.

Children are viewed as incompetent, or flawed adults, attempting to master the skills necessary to function as complete (adult) social actors. The constructionist emphasis on the activities of children has served as a starting point for many theorists wishing to take a more culturally based approach to socialization. These theorists have incorporated the work of symbolic interactionist and more recent theoretical developments, by persons in order to consider the social context of children’s activities.

Essay on Coaching

The requirements of the six coaching components and their order of importance have been derived from the extensive literature review. The coaching model strategy requires the inclusion of these six components: a non-threatening environment, a desire to be coached, interactive communication, feedback, problem-solving, and performance improvement.

The first four: a non-threatening environment, a desire to be coached, interactive communications, and feedback, are arranged in order of importance. The two issues, problem-solving and performance improvement, are addressed utilizing the first four components of the coaching strategy.

In organizations where managers attempt to develop solutions to solve problems and improve performances before coaching strategies are implemented implies to the subordinates that directing and not coaching is occurring.

1. There must be a non-threatening environment conducive to change. The environment must be one that gives support and encouragement, both during and after the establishment of a new process. Continuous support and encouragement include a capacity for each subordinate to fail throughout learning or improving the process. When failures occur the coach should respond in a non-punitive way. Thee environment should create within subordinates’ apperception of being respected, esteemed, and valued by their manager. Subordinates who fail need an atmosphere conducive to coaching, or the process will result in frustration for both the subordinate and the coach. Without a non¬≠threatening environment, directing not coaching is occurring.

2. The subordinate must have a desire to be coached. One of the basic principles of effective coaching is that no one can be coached in the absence of a demand for it.” He continued to say a coach should be able to stimulate an interest to be coached. No one can be coached in the absence of a demand for coaching. For a subordinate to have a desire to be coached there must be a perceived need to learn or improve performance. The subordinate must clearly recognize that coaching is occurring.

Essay on Characters on The Great Gatsby

Daisy Buchanan is a wealthy stunning lady with a voice that is melodious. She’s friendly, easygoing, but difficult to meet. Her inaccessibility transforms her into Gatsby’s target. Still, after all, there had already been a gulf between them: Daisy had already married and had a child before Gatsby finally became wealthy.

The differences in ideals between them also holding the lovebirds apart when Daisy left her husband for Gatsby. Every next chapter of the book crashed through Daisy’s initial picture as an attractive lady, a mom, and a mother. Daisy is a lady who was conceived on her own day, vain and featherbrained. She is quickly excited, for instance, by Gatsby’s mansion’s lavish interior architecture, the large closet he owns, and his apparent grandeur in the eyes of her environment. Gatsby acknowledges that money sounds like the sound of her voice.

Tom Buchanan is an embodiment of one set of them. He is overly selfish, confident in his individuality, projects brute dominance, keeps on to his individualistic beliefs steadily, and is not timid in revealing his arrogance and narrow mentality. Much like his wife, Tom loved being of high status from his birth and gaining substantially from the financial position of his family. That’s why his values are largely determined by being rich and his views on society. The evils of other social divisions and even mortality (like Myrtle Wilson’s death) are secondary concepts for him that are not worthy of his consideration.

The Buchanan couple’s outward elegance is compared with the nastiness within them, their loneliness, and their narcissism. Tom, intrigued by the sparkles of the diamonds, will spend long hours gazing at the shop windows. Yet, he can’t, even for a minute, keep a serious thought.

Essay on Teaching Medical Ethics

Concern over the teaching and learning of medical ethics has evolved over the past 30 years. A “coming of age” process is described in two national reports on the emergence and establishment of medical ethics education and continues today.

Medical ethics literature is often more exhortative than empirical. When based on the qualitative experiences of the writer(s), it does not usually meet the criteria required of qualitative research. Medical schools describe competence in both the scientific aspects of disease and the humanistic aspects of patient care as necessary outcomes, but wide variation exists in the weight and priority given scientific v. humanistic values in the curriculum.

On the other hand, while the literature on medical ethics education is sparse in comparison to medical literature that is disease or technique related, I believe that it must also be noted that biomedical education literature is equally or more limited. No clear consensus exists on the content or the approach best able to imbue students with its desired outcomes. For example, several studies found that pre-clerkship ethics instruction that was illness-specific (e.g. AIDS) and provided identification of personal support systems for the medical student was effective in minimizing or avoiding concerns that resulted in discrimination and bias when providing treatment. Unfortunately, “new” illnesses cannot be anticipated.

Nor can new technologies that will raise ethical questions about existing illnesses or evolving support methods such as internet support groups. It is important to identify and minimize existing problems, but a problem for medical ethics education is that it must also be proactive toward fixture actions. It must also identify ways to successfully prepare future physicians to deal with new issues that arise over the course of their careers. Prior to 1967 when an ethics program was instituted at Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, neither medical ethics nor medical humanities existed as a field of study.

Initially, most medical schools began formal instruction in ethics by incorporating ethics content into the professional curriculum as units of other courses. The current trend is for schools to require separate courses in medical ethics in increasing numbers. However, no consensus exists on this trend or the other options. Should medical ethics education support the trend away from an embedded approach? Is it better to incorporate specific classes on medical ethics into existing basic medical course plans?