History of Women and Mentoring

Before the 1800s, the large majority of men and women in the United States worked in the same environment on the farm or in the family business. Although distinct, the roles of men and women in the family economy of this period were not vastly different.

In response to the American Industrial Revolution, men migrated from working at home to factories and offices, while women became full-time homemakers. Therefore, the woman’s role of homemaker and the man’s role of economic provider were separately defined and different values were attached to men’s work and women’s work.

Over time, the perception of the ownership of these respective roles became more rigidly entrenched in the national value system due to the relentless socialization of both men and women in their respective roles. If women ventured into factories or offices, their roles were perceived as support functions only, and thus they were placed in menial jobs with low pay, status, and power.

Quite the contrary, however, their male counterparts were considered and socialized as the decision-makers in the workplace. 2Although some women entered the labor force under these conditions during the 1800s and early 1900s, it was the onset of World War II that actively pressed massive numbers of women into the workforce. Both married and single women were urged to fill jobs vacated by men who were drafted or volunteered for the armed forces.

Not only did women prove to be highly capable of performing these jobs, but they also enjoyed doing and being paid for valued work. After World War II, women did not return to their previous primary roles as homemakers but rather remained in the workforce low paid low status, and powerless employees. As employees, they experienced both access and valuation discrimination.

In the 1960s, women from all walks of life helped establish the National Organization for Women. Their vision included equal employment opportunities and an end to inequities in the workplace. Also during the 1960s, the Civil Rights Act, the Equal Pay Act, and the doctrine of Comparable Worth were implemented to address both access and valuation discrimination. As a result of legal intervention to ensure equal rights of women in the workforce, women not only entered into the workplace in unprecedentedly large numbers but also had access (though limited) to all types of professions.

Structure of the labour market in Saudi Arabia

Before the discovery of oil, the country was dominated by a nomadic and semi-nomadic way of life, known as the Bedouin lifestyle. The wandering and semi-nomadic population was estimated at 50% of the total population. This population began to decline, reaching about 46.2% in 1966 and gradually reaching 7% in 1992.

Considerable efforts were made, from 1910 to 1968, to establish nomads and transform them into agricultural societies. Some public departments were also created in 1915. The manufacturers did not exist until 1927. The craft industry, craft companies, fishing, and scuba diving were sources of employment in the most significant cities from the country. The workers involved in these types of work were few due to the country’s low income and the limited resources of the time.

In recent times, Saudi Arabia is undergoing a significant economic transformation, generating prosperity, and the resulting increased demand for labor. The country has met this demand by welcoming an influx of expatriate workers, whose labor force participation increased from 6.1 million a year earlier to 6.3 million in 2015, exceeding the number of Saudis. In the labor force, the overall participation rate of the country is 53.6%, compared with an average of 53.8% in the G20 countries.  But it is interesting to note that there is no correlation between production and rate of participation.

Saudi GDP increased to a 5.3% average between 2010 and 2015. This means that employers are continually adding jobs and looking for candidates for filling them, both among Saudis and expatriates. However, new opportunities on a qualified Saudian’s on the other side are not enough to ensure all skilled workers find jobs. The mismatch between supply and demand – connecting the Saudis opportunities that most effectively match their skills – is another barrier to sustainable economic growth.

Essay on Coaching

The requirements of the six coaching components and their order of importance have been derived from the extensive literature review. The coaching model strategy requires the inclusion of these six components: a non-threatening environment, a desire to be coached, interactive communication, feedback, problem-solving, and performance improvement.

The first four: a non-threatening environment, a desire to be coached, interactive communications, and feedback, are arranged in order of importance. The two issues, problem-solving and performance improvement, are addressed utilizing the first four components of the coaching strategy.

In organizations where managers attempt to develop solutions to solve problems and improve performances before coaching strategies are implemented implies to the subordinates that directing and not coaching is occurring.

1. There must be a non-threatening environment conducive to change. The environment must be one that gives support and encouragement, both during and after the establishment of a new process. Continuous support and encouragement include a capacity for each subordinate to fail throughout learning or improving the process. When failures occur the coach should respond in a non-punitive way. Thee environment should create within subordinates’ apperception of being respected, esteemed, and valued by their manager. Subordinates who fail need an atmosphere conducive to coaching, or the process will result in frustration for both the subordinate and the coach. Without a non­threatening environment, directing not coaching is occurring.

2. The subordinate must have a desire to be coached. One of the basic principles of effective coaching is that no one can be coached in the absence of a demand for it.” He continued to say a coach should be able to stimulate an interest to be coached. No one can be coached in the absence of a demand for coaching. For a subordinate to have a desire to be coached there must be a perceived need to learn or improve performance. The subordinate must clearly recognize that coaching is occurring.

Essay on History of Coaching

Turbulent economic environments generate changes in the way business is performed. Such turbulence was experienced at the dawning of the 20th century. That turbulence brought demand for expansion in both production and productivity in the United States. At that time, Frederick Taylor had been, since 1875, working on scientific management techniques. These were the techniques that would be used to fulfill that demand for production and productivity.

By 1900, Taylor had commenced work on his book, The Principles of Scientific Management, which was published in 1915. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, the world was going through a devastating depression. One company, in particular, was searching for assistance to survive the depression. Studebaker had a monumental problem: insufficient car sales. Studebaker’s management decided the sales group with the assistance of a coach could expand car sales, thus strengthening chances for surviving the devastating depression. Studebaker Corporation was located in South Bend, Indiana, and so was Notre Dame University with a winning football coach.

Studebaker turned to Notre Dame for assistance, and that assistance was found in Knut Rockne. Studebaker negotiated a contract with Rockne on May 1, 1928, to expedite the transformation of car sales. Rockne had been building successful football squads for years; he apparently understood methods and psychology needed to make an organization function. Rockne characterized the manager’s job as that of designating, preparing, guiding, encouraging, and compensating employees. Similarly, he characterized the coach’s job as designating, preparing, guiding, and encouraging football players during the final year, 1932, of Rockne’s life, Studebaker made him head coach of a sales management team.

One manifestation of his coaching strategy was illustrated by the directive that all sales managers of agencies were expected to be competitors for the main string position. In the 1950s, again, a sluggish economy brought demand for assistance to the industrial arena. Successively, articles began appearing in periodicals about the coaching process. One attempt to investigate coaching as a management process was illustrated in the 1958 work of Mace and Mahler.

They envisioned coaching as a deserving and obtainable management skill. In the late 1970s, American corporations began to realize that their market share was being lost, a substantial amount to Japan and assistance was necessary if the market position was to be maintained or regained. Once again, attention shifted to the human resource elements within organizations.