Essay on Importance of Peer Relationship

While the cultures of children have long been of interest to social theorists until recently studies of these cultures have failed to conceptualize youth as complete and autonomous social actors. Through the mid-1960s research on child development and socialization was dominated by a behavioristic approach. This approach has been criticized on three major points.

First, children were viewed passively. The emphasis was on the internalization of adult roles by means of modeling and reinforcement. Adults controlled the socialization process. This approach may also be characterized as individualistic. Children learned the elements of adult culture separately and apart from peers. Lastly, the behavioristic perspective has largely neglected the cognitive processes and interpretive capacities of children (and indeed of all social actors). The world described by behaviorists is objective, obvious, and requires no interpretation.

This perspective has come under increasing attack for its simplistic notions with respect to the dynamics of interaction and social structure. The recognition of the importance of peer relations is a major step toward a better understanding of socialization and developmental processes. There are, however, flaws which remain in this approach.

The perspective is still largely individualistic in nature. While peers are seen as influencing the development of knowledge and skills, these competencies are still characteristic of individuals and not the peer group. There is an assumed model of the competent adult actor and children are evaluated against this ideal. A recognition of the autonomy of children’s cultures is still lacking.

Children are viewed as incompetent, or flawed adults, attempting to master the skills necessary to function as complete (adult) social actors. The constructionist emphasis on the activities of children has served as a starting point for many theorists wishing to take a more culturally based approach to socialization. These theorists have incorporated the work of symbolic interactionist and more recent theoretical developments, by persons in order to consider the social context of children’s activities.

Essay on Teaching Medical Ethics

Concern over the teaching and learning of medical ethics has evolved over the past 30 years. A “coming of age” process is described in two national reports on the emergence and establishment of medical ethics education and continues today.

Medical ethics literature is often more exhortative than empirical. When based on the qualitative experiences of the writer(s), it does not usually meet the criteria required of qualitative research. Medical schools describe competence in both the scientific aspects of disease and the humanistic aspects of patient care as necessary outcomes, but wide variation exists in the weight and priority given scientific v. humanistic values in the curriculum.

On the other hand, while the literature on medical ethics education is sparse in comparison to medical literature that is disease or technique related, I believe that it must also be noted that biomedical education literature is equally or more limited. No clear consensus exists on the content or the approach best able to imbue students with its desired outcomes. For example, several studies found that pre-clerkship ethics instruction that was illness-specific (e.g. AIDS) and provided identification of personal support systems for the medical student was effective in minimizing or avoiding concerns that resulted in discrimination and bias when providing treatment. Unfortunately, “new” illnesses cannot be anticipated.

Nor can new technologies that will raise ethical questions about existing illnesses or evolving support methods such as internet support groups. It is important to identify and minimize existing problems, but a problem for medical ethics education is that it must also be proactive toward fixture actions. It must also identify ways to successfully prepare future physicians to deal with new issues that arise over the course of their careers. Prior to 1967 when an ethics program was instituted at Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, neither medical ethics nor medical humanities existed as a field of study.

Initially, most medical schools began formal instruction in ethics by incorporating ethics content into the professional curriculum as units of other courses. The current trend is for schools to require separate courses in medical ethics in increasing numbers. However, no consensus exists on this trend or the other options. Should medical ethics education support the trend away from an embedded approach? Is it better to incorporate specific classes on medical ethics into existing basic medical course plans?

SOE11440 Marketing within the Global Economy Project

SOE11440 Marketing within the Global Economy Project 2 Assessment Developing Competitive Advantage 1 Context You are Marketing Director for any company of your choice.

This project is designed to reflect the practical side of marketing strategy and asks you to convert the academic theory you learn in your lectures and reading into the practical direction for your company is embarking on a Strategic Planning Process taking a 3-year view You are responsible for the strategic marketing part…

Professional Associations in Nursing

Examine the importance of professional associations in nursing. Choose a professional nursing organization that relates to your specialty area, or a specialty area in which you are interested. 

In a 750-1,000 word paper, provide a detailed overview the organization and its advantages for members. Include the following:

1.) Describe the organization and its significance to nurses in the specialty area. Include its purpose, mission, and vision. Describe the overall benefits, or “perks,” of being a member.

2.) Explain why it is important for a nurse in this specialty field to network. Discuss how this organization creates networking opportunities for nurses.

3.) Discuss how the organization keeps its members informed of health care changes and changes to practice that affect the specialty area.

4.) Discuss opportunities for continuing education and professional development.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.