Essay on History of Coaching

Turbulent economic environments generate changes in the way business is performed. Such turbulence was experienced at the dawning of the 20th century. That turbulence brought demand for expansion in both production and productivity in the United States. At that time, Frederick Taylor had been, since 1875, working on scientific management techniques. These were the techniques that would be used to fulfill that demand for production and productivity.

By 1900, Taylor had commenced work on his book, The Principles of Scientific Management, which was published in 1915. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, the world was going through a devastating depression. One company, in particular, was searching for assistance to survive the depression. Studebaker had a monumental problem: insufficient car sales. Studebaker’s management decided the sales group with the assistance of a coach could expand car sales, thus strengthening chances for surviving the devastating depression. Studebaker Corporation was located in South Bend, Indiana, and so was Notre Dame University with a winning football coach.

Studebaker turned to Notre Dame for assistance, and that assistance was found in Knut Rockne. Studebaker negotiated a contract with Rockne on May 1, 1928, to expedite the transformation of car sales. Rockne had been building successful football squads for years; he apparently understood methods and psychology needed to make an organization function. Rockne characterized the manager’s job as that of designating, preparing, guiding, encouraging, and compensating employees. Similarly, he characterized the coach’s job as designating, preparing, guiding, and encouraging football players during the final year, 1932, of Rockne’s life, Studebaker made him head coach of a sales management team.

One manifestation of his coaching strategy was illustrated by the directive that all sales managers of agencies were expected to be competitors for the main string position. In the 1950s, again, a sluggish economy brought demand for assistance to the industrial arena. Successively, articles began appearing in periodicals about the coaching process. One attempt to investigate coaching as a management process was illustrated in the 1958 work of Mace and Mahler.

They envisioned coaching as a deserving and obtainable management skill. In the late 1970s, American corporations began to realize that their market share was being lost, a substantial amount to Japan and assistance was necessary if the market position was to be maintained or regained. Once again, attention shifted to the human resource elements within organizations.

Essay on The human needs of a person

A human being is a creature with endless needs and wishes. Until and unless we are provided with these resources, the human-self is not happy and cannot operate properly. In the history, we have seen examples of people who created a civilization of their own to meet their needs. Even the tiniest and menial things were used to gain from, and make new and improved things. Human beings are materialistic and they require sufficient resources to satisfy their inner desires and basic needs. Continue reading “Essay on The human needs of a person”

Essay on Teaching Medical Ethics

Concern over the teaching and learning of medical ethics has evolved over the past 30 years. A “coming of age” process is described in two national reports on the emergence and establishment of medical ethics education and continues today.

Medical ethics literature is often more exhortative than empirical. When based on the qualitative experiences of the writer(s), it does not usually meet the criteria required of qualitative research. Medical schools describe competence in both the scientific aspects of disease and the humanistic aspects of patient care as necessary outcomes, but wide variation exists in the weight and priority given scientific v. humanistic values in the curriculum.

On the other hand, while the literature on medical ethics education is sparse in comparison to medical literature that is disease or technique related, I believe that it must also be noted that biomedical education literature is equally or more limited. No clear consensus exists on the content or the approach best able to imbue students with its desired outcomes. For example, several studies found that pre-clerkship ethics instruction that was illness-specific (e.g. AIDS) and provided identification of personal support systems for the medical student was effective in minimizing or avoiding concerns that resulted in discrimination and bias when providing treatment. Unfortunately, “new” illnesses cannot be anticipated.

Nor can new technologies that will raise ethical questions about existing illnesses or evolving support methods such as internet support groups. It is important to identify and minimize existing problems, but a problem for medical ethics education is that it must also be proactive toward fixture actions. It must also identify ways to successfully prepare future physicians to deal with new issues that arise over the course of their careers. Prior to 1967 when an ethics program was instituted at Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, neither medical ethics nor medical humanities existed as a field of study.

Initially, most medical schools began formal instruction in ethics by incorporating ethics content into the professional curriculum as units of other courses. The current trend is for schools to require separate courses in medical ethics in increasing numbers. However, no consensus exists on this trend or the other options. Should medical ethics education support the trend away from an embedded approach? Is it better to incorporate specific classes on medical ethics into existing basic medical course plans?

History of Women and Mentoring

Before the 1800s, the large majority of men and women in the United States worked in the same environment on the farm or in the family business. Although distinct, the roles of men and women in the family economy of this period were not vastly different.

In response to the American Industrial Revolution, men migrated from working at home to factories and offices, while women became full-time homemakers. Therefore, the woman’s role of homemaker and the man’s role of economic provider were separately defined and different values were attached to men’s work and women’s work.

Over time, the perception of the ownership of these respective roles became more rigidly entrenched in the national value system due to the relentless socialization of both men and women in their respective roles. If women ventured into factories or offices, their roles were perceived as support functions only, and thus they were placed in menial jobs with low pay, status, and power.

Quite the contrary, however, their male counterparts were considered and socialized as the decision-makers in the workplace. 2Although some women entered the labor force under these conditions during the 1800s and early 1900s, it was the onset of World War II that actively pressed massive numbers of women into the workforce. Both married and single women were urged to fill jobs vacated by men who were drafted or volunteered for the armed forces.

Not only did women prove to be highly capable of performing these jobs, but they also enjoyed doing and being paid for valued work. After World War II, women did not return to their previous primary roles as homemakers but rather remained in the workforce low paid low status, and powerless employees. As employees, they experienced both access and valuation discrimination.

In the 1960s, women from all walks of life helped establish the National Organization for Women. Their vision included equal employment opportunities and an end to inequities in the workplace. Also during the 1960s, the Civil Rights Act, the Equal Pay Act, and the doctrine of Comparable Worth were implemented to address both access and valuation discrimination. As a result of legal intervention to ensure equal rights of women in the workforce, women not only entered into the workplace in unprecedentedly large numbers but also had access (though limited) to all types of professions.